A study on temporal trends and estimates of fate of Bisphenol A in agricultural soils after sewage sludge amendment.
Le Velly, Morgane
Rhind, Stewart M.
Kyle, Carol E.
Hough, Rupert L.
Duff, Elizabeth I.
MetadataShow full item record
ZHANG, Z., LE VELLY, M., RHIND, S. M., KYLE, C. E., HOUGH, R. L., DUFF, E. I. and MCKENZIE, C., 2015. A study on temporal trends and estimates of fate of Bisphenol A in agricultural soils after sewage sludge amendment. Science of the Total Environment, 515-516, pp. 1-11.
Temporal concentration trends of BPA in soils were investigated following sewage sludge application to pasture (study 1: short termsludge application; study 2: long termmultiple applications over 13 years). The background levels of BPA in control soils were similar, ranging between 0.67–10.57 ng g−1 (mean: 3.02 ng g−1) and 0.51– 6.58 ng g−1 (mean: 3.22 ng g−1) for studies 1 and 2, respectively. Concentrations in both treated and control plots increased over the earlier sampling times of the study to a maximum and then decreased over later sampling times, suggesting other sources of BPA to both the treated and control soils over the study period. In study 1 there was a significant treatment effect of sludge application in the autumn (p=0.002) although no significant difference was observed between treatment and control soils in the spring. In study 2 treated soils contained considerably higher BPA concentrations than controls ranging between 12.89–167.9 ng g−1 (mean: 63.15 ng g−1). This and earlier studies indicate the long-termaccumulation ofmultiple contaminants bymultiple sewage sludge applications over a prolonged period although the effects of the presence of such contaminant mixtures have not yet been elucidated. Fugacitymodelling was undertaken to estimate partitioning of Bisphenol A (soil plus sewage: pore water: soil air partitioning) and potential uptake into a range of food crops. While Bisphenol A sorbs strongly to the sewage-amended soil, 4% by mass was predicted to enter soil pore water resulting in significant uptake by crops particularly leafy vegetables (3.12–75.5 ng g−1), but also for root crops (1.28–31.0 ng g−1)withmuch lower uptake into cereal grains (0.62–15.0 ng g−1). Thiswork forms part of a larger programme of research aimed at assessing the risks associated with the long-term application of sewage sludge to agricultural soils.