Novel bisnaphthalimidopropyl (BNIPs) derivatives as anticancer compounds targeting DNA in human breast cancer cells.
Barron, Gemma A.
Kong Thoo Lin, Paul
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KOPSIDA, M., BARRON, G.A. BERMANO, G., KONG THOO LIN, P. and GOUA, M. 2016. Novel bisnaphthalimidopropyl (BNIPs) derivatives as anticancer compounds targeting DNA in human breast cancer cells. Organic and biomolecular chemistry [online], 14(41), pages 9780-9789. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C6OB01850E
Bisnaphthalimidopropyl (BNIP) derivatives are a family of compounds that exert anti-cancer activities in vitro and, according to previous studies, variations in the linker sequence have increased their DNA binding and cytotoxic activities. By modifying the linker sequence of bisnaphthalimidopropyl diaminodicyclohexylmethane (BNIPDaCHM), a previously synthesised BNIP derivative with anti-cancer properties, three novel BNIP derivatives were designed. Bisnaphthalimidopropyl-piperidylpropane (BNIPPiProp), a structural isomer of BNIPDaCHM, bisnaphthalimidopropyl ethylenedipiperidine dihydrobromide (BNIPPiEth), an isoform of BNIPDaCHM with a shorter linker chain, and (trans(trans))-bisnaphthalimidopropyl diaminodicyclohexylmethane (trans,trans-BNIPDaCHM), a stereoisomer of BNIPDaCHM, were successfully synthesised (72.3?29.5% yield) and characterised by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). Competitive displacement of ethidium bromide (EtBr) and UV binding studies were used to study the interactions of BNIP derivatives with Calf Thymus DNA. The cytotoxicity of these derivatives was assessed against human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and SKBR-3 cells by MTT assay. Propidium iodide (PI) flow cytometry was conducted in order to evaluate the cellular DNA content in both breast cancer cell lines before and after treatment with BNIPs. The results showed that all novel BNIPs exhibit strong DNA binding properties in vitro, and strong cytotoxicity, with IC50 values in the range of 0.2-3.3 mM after 24 hours drug treatment. Two of the novel BNIP derivatives, BNIPPiEth and trans,trans-BNIPDaCHM, exhibited greater cytotoxicity against the two breast cancer cell lines studied, compared to BNIPDaCHM. By synthesising enantiopures and reducing the length of the linker sequence, the cytotoxicity of the BNIP derivatives was significantly improved compared to BNIPDaCHM, while maintaining DNA binding and bis-intercalating properties. In addition, cell cycle studies indicated that trans,trans-BNIPDaCHM, the most cytotoxic BNIP derivative, induced sub-G1 cell cycle arrest, indicative of apoptotic cell death. Based on these findings, further investigation is under way to assess the potential efficacy of trans,trans-BNIPDaCHM and BNIPPiEth in treating human breast cancer.