From cockpit to operating theatre to drilling rig floor: five principles for improving safety using simulator-based exercises to enhance team cognition.
Crichton, Margaret Thomson
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CRICHTON, M.T. 2017. From cockpit to operating theatre to drilling rig floor: five principles for improving safety using simulator-based exercises to enhance team cognition. Cognition, technology and work [online], 19(1), pages 73-84. Available from: https//doi.org/10.1007/s10111-016-0396-9
For over 30 years, aviation has conducted training courses to enhance team performance and improve safety involving simulation with observation and directed feedback. Participants' performance is observed by trained and experienced observers who then provide feedback using behaviour-based evidence noted during the simulator exercise. More recently, in healthcare, operating theatre personnel have adopted simulator-based training (SBT), observation and feedback for learning and practice to reduce the potential for human errors and improve safety. Maritime and nuclear power also incorporate high-fidelity simulators and feedback in team training interventions including technical and non-technical skills. The design and development of drilling rig simulators means that drill crews can now practise and test out their decision-making and receive feedback from observers, with the aim of improving team non-technical skills and consequently reducing the potential for errors. This paper presents five principles gleaned from research and the experiences of both aviation and healthcare to be applied to the development of simulator-based exercising for drilling teams. The principles include: (a) developing learning objectives and expected performance standards; (b) training the team as a whole; (c) using a structured observation tool; (d) providing feedback during a structured debrief; (e) repeat the SBT regularly to enhance expertise and retain performance standards. It is anticipated that these principles can be generalised for simulator-based exercising to benefit team social and cognitive competences in other high-hazard or process industries.