Esterification of lactic acid and ethanol using heterogenous catalysts for the production of a bio-based chemical.
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OKON, E., HABIBA, S. and GOBINA, E. 2017. Esterification of lactic acid and ethanol using heterogenous catalysts for the production of a bio-based chemical. Lecture notes in engineering and computer science: Proceedings of the international multiconference of engineers and computer scientists 2017 Vol II (IMECS 2017) [online], 15 - 17 March 2017, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Newswood Ltd, pages 811-817. Available from: http://www.iaeng.org/publication/IMECS2017/IMECS2017_pp811-817.pdf
In this work, the batch process esterification reaction was carried out at 80 oC using different types of heterogeneous catalysts. The heterogeneous resin catalysts used for the analysis were amberlyst 15, amberlyst 36, amberlyst 16 and dowex 50W8x. The esterification product was analysed using autosampler gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometer (Agilent technology 7890B). The surface morphology of the resin catalysts after the esterification process was examined using scanning electron microscopy (The Zeiss EVO LS10) coupled with energy dispersive analysis of x-ray (The Oxford INCA System) (SEM/EDAX). The SEM of amberlyst 36 and 16 showed a defect-free surface in contrast to amberlyst 15 and dowex 50W8x. The EDAX spectra of the resin catalysts confirmed the presence of elements including carbon, oxygen, sulphur, and aluminium. Amberlyst 36 exhibited a large pore after the esterification process in contrast to other catalysts. Sulphur showed the highest peak on the EDAX of the resin. Dowex 50W8x and amberlyst 36 resin catalysts were found to elute faster at 1.523 and 1.527 min respectively in contrast to amberlyst 15 and amberlyst 16 at 1.521 and 1.503 min respectively. The increasing order of the retention time after the esterification process at 80 oC was dowex 50W8x > amberlyst 36 > amberlyst 15 > amberlyst 16. The liquid nitrogen adsorption at 77 K (Quantachrome 2013) was used to determine the surface area, pore size and the total pore volume of the cation-exchange reins. The BET surface area of the resin catalyst was found to be higher (14.302 m2/g) with hysteresis loop confirming a good interaction of the catalysts with the reactant solvent.