Stakeholders' views and experiences of pharmacist prescribing: a systematic review.
Stewart, Derek C.
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JEBARA, T., CUNNINGHAM, S., MACLURE, K., AWAISU, A., PALLIVALAPILA, A. and STEWART, D. 2018. Stakeholders' views and experiences of pharmacist prescribing: a systematic review. British journal of clinical pharmacology [online], 84(9), pages 1883-1905. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1111/bcp.13624
AIMS: The aims of this systematic review were to: (1) critically appraise, synthesize and present the available evidence on the views and experiences of stakeholders on pharmacist prescribing and; (2) present the perceived facilitators and barriers for its global implementation. METHODS: Medline, CINAHL, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, PsychArticles and Google Scholar databases were searched. Study selection, quality assessment and data extraction were conducted independently by two reviewers. A narrative approach to data synthesis was undertaken due to heterogeneity, the nature of study types and outcome measures. RESULTS: Sixty-five studies were identified, mostly from the UK (n=34), followed by Australia ( n=13), Canada (n=6) and USA (n=5). Twenty-seven studies reported pharmacists' perspectives, with fewer studies focusing on patients' (n=12), doctors' (n=6), the general public's(n=4), nurses' (n=1), policymakers' ( n=1) and multiple stakeholders' (n=14) perspectives. Most reported positive experiences and views, regardless of stage of implementation. The main benefits described were: ease of patient access to healthcare services, improved patient outcomes, better use of pharmacists' skills and knowledge, improved pharmacist job satisfaction, and reduced physician workload. Any lack of support for pharmacist prescribing was largely in relation to: accountability for prescribing, limited pharmacist diagnosis skills, lack of access to patient clinical records, and issues concerning organizational and financial support. CONCLUSION: There is an accumulation of global evidence of the positive views and experiences of diverse stakeholder groups and their perceptions of facilitators and barriers to pharmacist prescribing. There are, however, organizational issues to be tackled which may otherwise impede the implementation and sustainability of pharmacist prescribing.