Change detection for activity recognition.
Bashir, Sulaimon A.
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BASHIR, S.A. 2017. Change detection for activity recognition. Robert Gordon University, PhD thesis.
Activity Recognition is concerned with identifying the physical state of a user at a particular point in time. Activity recognition task requires the training of classification algorithm using the processed sensor data from the representative population of users. The accuracy of the generated model often reduces during classification of new instances due to the non-stationary sensor data and variations in user characteristics. Thus, there is a need to adapt the classification model to new user haracteristics. However, the existing approaches to model adaptation in activity recognition are blind. They continuously adapt a classification model at a regular interval without specific and precise detection of the indicator of the degrading performance of the model. This approach can lead to wastage of system resources dedicated to continuous adaptation. This thesis addresses the problem of detecting changes in the accuracy of activity recognition model. The thesis developed a classifier for activity recognition. The classifier uses three statistical summaries data that can be generated from any dataset for similarity based classification of new samples. The weighted ensemble combination of the classification decision from each statistical summary data results in a better performance than three existing benchmarked classification algorithms. The thesis also presents change detection approaches that can detect the changes in the accuracy of the underlying recognition model without having access to the ground truth label of each activity being recognised. The first approach called `UDetect' computes the change statistics from the window of classified data and employed statistical process control method to detect variations between the classified data and the reference data of a class. Evaluation of the approach indicates a consistent detection that correlates with the error rate of the model. The second approach is a distance based change detection technique that relies on the developed statistical summaries data for comparing new classified samples and detects any drift in the original class of the activity. The implemented approach uses distance function and a threshold parameter to detect the accuracy change in the classifier that is classifying new instances. Evaluation of the approach yields above 90% detection accuracy. Finally, a layered framework for activity recognition is proposed to make model adaptation in activity recognition informed using the developed techniques in this thesis.