Targeting histone deacetylase (HDACs) enzymes with novel bisnaphthalimidopropyl derivatives (BNIPs) as alternative breast cancer therapies.
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KOPSIDA, M. 2018. Targeting histone deacetylase (HDACs) enzymes with novel bisnaphthalimidopropyl derivatives (BNIPs) as alternative breast cancer therapies. Robert Gordon University, PhD thesis.
Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in women, with incidence rates approaching 1.38 million cases per year worldwide. Over the last few decades, there have been numerous attempts to develop, synthesise and advance into the clinic novel and selective breast cancer therapies. Research work has shown that bisnaphthalimidopropyl diaminodicyclohexylmethane (BNIPDaCHM) exerts potent in vitro anti-cancer activities and strong DNA binding properties. The aim of this thesis was to synthetise novel bisnaphthalimidopropyl derivatives (BNIPs) and investigate their subsequent modes of action within two human metastatic breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and SKBR-3. A series of novel BNIPs, bisnaphthalimidopropyl-piperidylpropane (BNIPPiProp), bisnaphthalimidopropyl- ethylenedipiperidine (BNIPPiEth) and (trans(trans))-4,4’-methylenebis-cyclohexylamine (trans,trans-BNIPDaCHM) were synthesised, characterised and studied in comparison to BNIPDaCHM for their DNA binding and anti-cancer activities against MDA-MB-231 and SKBR-3 cells. Thermal denaturation studies have shown that BNIPs can intercalate and stabilize the double helix of Calf Thymus, each BNIP can competitively displace EtBr from DNA in a dose dependent manner and by UV binding studies, high affinity was found for the three novel BNIPs. After 24 hours treatment, all novel BNIPs, exhibited strong cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging from 1.4 μM to 3.3 μM in MDA-MB-231 cells and 0.2 - 0.7 μM in SKBR-3 cells, confirming the importance of bisnaphthalimidopropyl functionality. BNIPs were also found to increase intracellular ROS levels after 8 hours treatment and induce a significant increase in DNA strand breaks compared to endogenous levels, after 24 hour treatment in both cell lines. After cell synchronisation, cell cycle distribution was studied, revealing that trans,trans-BNIPDaCHM induces sub-G1 cell population arrest in MDA-MB-231 and SKBR-3 cells, after 24 hours treatment. In addition, BNIPs induced apoptotic phosphatidylserine exposure, after 0.5 hours treatment, inhibited Caspase-3 activity and increased autophagy, after 24 hour treatment in MDA-MB-231 and SKBR-3 cells. Moreover, BNIPs inhibited histone deacetylases (HDAC) activity after 24 hours treatment in MDA-MB-231 and SKBR-3 cells and BNIPDaCHM was identified as a potential SIRT2 inhibitor, in SKBR-3 cells. According to Proteome Profiler Arrays, BNIPDaCHM and BNIPPiEth altered the expression of cell stress-related proteins in a cell dependent manner and bioinformatic analysis revealed two novel, putative pathways for BNIP-induced oxidative stress-mediated cell death in MDA-MB-231 and SKBR-3 cells. The above findings indicate that BNIPs represent promising candidates for future breast cancer studies and cancer treatment.