Institutions and the shaping of different forms of entrepreneurship.
Harbi, Sana El
Anderson, Alistair R.
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Entrepreneurship is a broad concept encompassing a wide range of activities, from the Schumpertian ideal associated with innovation to simply creating a job for oneself. Because we ask about national differences in entrepreneurship, we consider national differences for entrepreneurship, the institutions, and if these relate to the emergence of different types of enterprise. We propose that national patent grants represent innovation and that national self-employment rates represent job replacement. Interestingly, we found that institutional factors that determine self-employment and innovation may act in opposite directions: what encourages self-employment might discourage innovation and vice-versa.