The use of carbon and gold electrodes in anodic stripping voltammetric heavy metal sensors.
Robertson, Peter K. J.
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BONSEN, E. M., ROBERTSON, P. K. J., MCSTAY, D., POLLARD, P., BACKES, M. and SHAW, J., 1999. The use of carbon and gold electrodes in anodic stripping voltammetric heavy metal sensors. In : N. M. WHITE and A. T. AUGOUSTI, eds. Sensors and their Applications X: Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Sensors and their Applications, held in Cardiff, Wales, 5-8 September 1999. New York: Taylor and Francis. Pp. 83-88.
The use of anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV)has been proven in the past to be a precise and sensitive analytical method with an excellent limit of detection. Electrochemical sensors could help to avoid expensive and time consuming procedures as sample taking and storage and provide a both sensitive and reliable method for the direct monitoring of heavy metals in the aquatic environment. Solid electrodes which have been used in this work, were produced using previously developed methods. Commercially available and newly designed, screen printed carbon and gold plated working electrodes (WE) were compared. Good results were achieved with the screen printed and plated electrodes under conditions optimized for each electrode material. The electrode stability, reproducibility of single measurements and the limit of detection obtained for Pb were satisfactory (3*10-6mol/l on screen printed carbon WEs after 60 s of deposition and 6*10-6 mol/l on gold plated WEs after 5 min of deposition). Complete 3-electrode-sets (counter, reference and working electrode) were screen printed on different substrates (glass, polycarbonate and alumina). Also here, both carbon and gold were used as WE. Using 3-electrode-sets with a gold plated WE on glass was a limit of detection of 7*10-7 mol/l was achieved after only 60 s of deposition.