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|Title: ||Exploring pharmacist prescribing in hospitals in Scotland, with a focus on antimicrobials.|
|Authors: ||Tonna, Antonella P.|
|Supervisors: ||McCaig, Dorothy|
Stewart, Derek C.
West, Bernice J. M.
|Keywords: ||Hospital pharmacy|
|Issue Date: ||Jul-2011|
|Publisher: ||Robert Gordon University|
|Abstract: ||This aim of the research was to explore pharmacist prescribing (PP) with a
focus on antimicrobials, in hospitals in Scotland.
A mixed-methods approach was used to collect, generate and synthesise
data. A systematic review of peer-reviewed published literature on
evidence-based roles for the pharmacist as part of an antimicrobial
multidisciplinary team, identified roles for pharmacists within the teams but
limited evidence relating to outcomes associated with these roles.
Six qualitative focus groups, with 37 hospital pharmacists in 5 Scottish
Health Boards, contextualised perceptions of barriers to, and facilitators of,
implementation of PP in hospitals. Key themes were: perceived lack of
pharmacy management support to take on a prescribing role and little
strategic attention paid to PP implementation and sustainability. These
issues were discussed in relation to PP in general and not only for
antimicrobials. Participants perceived successful implementation of PP to be
associated with factors including ward type and patient’s clinical condition.
None of the pharmacists were prescribing antimicrobials and consequently
further studies focused on PP in general.
A scoping exercise, utilising various sources of information, reinforced
findings from Phase 1; it highlighted the absence of any national or Health
Board frameworks to support implementation of PP in secondary care in
Consensus-based research was undertaken, therefore, to provide guidance
to facilitate service redesign involving PP in secondary care in Scotland. A
Delphi approach undertaken with 40 experts, mainly in strategic posts,
resulted in a high level of agreement in areas relating to succession
planning, rather than role development; more variability was obtained in
areas relating to future orientation of service, competencies required by
prescribers and potential development of non-medical prescribing teams.
The guidance was developed into a self-assessment toolkit providing an analytical strategy for implementation and role development of PP in
While the results and conclusions generated through this research need to
be interpreted with caution, the data generated is an original contribution to
the evidence base relating to PP.|
|Appears in Collections:||Theses (Pharmacy & Life Sciences)|
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