Low-carbohydrate diets, obesity and type 2 diabetes: a review.
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This review examines the effects of low-carbohydrate, high-protein diets (LCHO) (<150g carbohydrate/d) on glycaemia and cardiovascular risk, energy expenditure, appetite and satiety, liver and kidney function, bone metabolism, and possible adverse effects in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). At this stage, there is evidence to suggest that the use of lower carbohydrate diets improves glycaemia, cardiovascular risk and liver function in patients with T2DM and broadens patient choice as LCHOs provide an alternative to the standard dietary interventions. However, there is still a lack of evidence for the use of these approaches in the longer term.